SENTENCE PATTERNS

SP 1: Independent Clause (IC)  SP 2: Adjective(s), IC.  SP 3: Adverb + adverb, IC.
SP 4: Prepositional phrase, IC SP 5:Present participial phrase,IC. SP 6:Past participial phrase,IC
SP 7: Appositive Phrase, IC. SP 8: IC + IC. SP 9: IC,conj. adv, IC.
SP 10: 
Adj+adj, IC, conj  adv, IC.
SP 11:IC + DC (adj clause) SP 12: Using Whom
SP 13:Using Who’s and Whose SP 14: Writing Dialogue SP 15:Similes & Metaphors
SP 16:Using Colons to List SP 17: Adverb Clauses SP 18: Parallel Structure
SP-19: Using Possessives    

SENTENCE PATTERN 1:  Independent Clause (IC.)

Examples:
            The grizzly devoured the salmon.
   
         The bear plunked down.

Examples:
            The weak, hungry grizzly greedily devoured the salmon.
   
         The weary bear lazily plunked down for a nap.  

SENTENCE PATTERN 2:  Adjective(s), Independent Clause (Adj, IC.)

SENTENCE PATTERN 3:  Adverb + adverb, Independent Clause (Adv, IC.)

Examples:

Hungrily and greedily, the grizzly devoured the salmon. 

(How did the grizzly devour?)

Suddenly but quietly, the bear plunked down for a nap. 

(When and how did the bear plunk?)

Up and down, the salmon battled the frigid water.

(Where did the salmon plunge?)

SENTENCE PATTERN 4:  Prepositional phrase, Independent Clause (Pp, IC.)

Ř     This pattern begins with a prepositional phrase, followed by an independent clause.

Ř     Prepositions begin a phrase that is followed by an object (noun or pronoun).

Examples:  under, before, after, for, to, from, in, out, beneath, at, despite

Ř     A prepositional phrase contains a preposition and the object of the preposition.

Examples:  under the bed, before school, in the closet, after the storm

Ř     Prepositional phrases describe nouns or verbs.

Examples: 

Under the bed, the cat hid from its owner. (Where did the cat hide?)

     After the storm, the sun came out, forming a rainbow. (When …?)

    With great care, the veterinarian removed the thorn from the tiger's paw.

        (How did the veterinarian remove the thorn?)

Ř     If the prepositional phrase precedes the IC, it must describe the subject or verb of the IC (not some other noun or verb in the sentence).

 

SENTENCE PATTERN 5: Present participial phrase, Independent Clause (Ppp, IC.)

Ř     This pattern begins with a present participial phrase, followed by the independent clause.

Ř     A present participial phrase begins with a present particple.

Ř     A present participle is a verb form that ends in -ing and functions as an adjective.  It describes the subject of the IC.

Examples:  running, yelling, sleeping, daring

Ř     A present participial phrase has a present participle followed by an adverb(s) or prepositional phrase.

Examples: 

Running down the hill, the dog chased the cat.

Yelling loudly, Bob clung to the broken branch dangling above the river.

Daring his friend to jump too, Bert leaped into the swollen river.

SENTENCE PATTERN 6: Past participial phrase, Independent Clause. (Ppp, IC.)

Ř     This sentence pattern is similar to sentence pattern 5, but the participle is in the past tense instead of the present tense.

Ř     Past participles are verbs in the past tense form.  Regular verbs end in -ed.

Examples:  exhausted, famished, stripped, bleached, crazed

Ř     These verbs function as adjectives.  They describe the subject of the IC.

Examples: 

    Uninhabited a few days earlier, the shore was now crowded with grizzlies.

Exhausted from fishing all day, the bear plunked down for a nap.

Stripped clean by hungry grizzlies, salmon bones now littered the shore.

Crazed with jealousy, Bob raced recklessly to his girlfriend's house when he

   heard Bert was taking her to the dance.  

SENTENCE PATTERN 7: Appositive Phrase, Independent Clause.  (AP, IC.)

        The grizzly, a predator, eats fish.                    A predator, the grizzly eats fish.
          Sam, my brother, is exasperating.                    My brother, Sam, is exasperating.
         Harry Potter, an author, is well known.            An author, Harry Potter  is well known.

            Example: Grizzlies in Alaska eat salmon, a fish.            

Examples:  
    The grizzly, a fearless predator, eats little meat other than fish. 
     Sam, my pesky little brother, is exasperating.  
   
My pesky little brother, Sam, is exasperating.
    Harry Potter, a character in children’s books, is well known.
  

A fearless predator, the grizzly eats little meat other than fish.  
A pesky little brother,
Sam is exasperating.  
A well-known author,
Shel Silverstein  writes children’s poetry.  
A well-known character, Harry Potter  is an adventurous young man.  

 

SENTENCE PATTERN 8: Independent Clause + Independent Clause (IC + IC)

 Examples:

   The insatiable grizzly devoured the salmon, and its belly was soon bulging.

   The insatiable grizzly devoured the salmon; its belly was soon bulging.

   Flamboyant Bob went to the movies, but bashful Bert rented a video.  

   Flamboyant Bob went to the movies; bashful Bert rented a video.  

   John was asked to deliver an impromptu speech, and his mind raced with fear.

   John was asked to deliver an impromptu speech; his mind raced with fear.  
 

SENTENCE PATTERN 9: IC, conj, adverb, IC.

SP 10 = SP 1, conjunction SP 3  
SP 10 = IC, conjunction adverb, IC.   

IC = Independent Clause = a complete sentence with a subject (S) and a verb (V)
Adverb = a word that tells how, when, or where the action (verb) occurs

Comma Rules:  
* Use a comma and a conjunction (and, or, but, so) to join two Independent Clauses (IC's).                                                           Adverb,  S        V
* When an adverb precedes an IC, use a comma. Ex: Angrily, Bob protested.

                   S           V                                                                          adverb
Example:  Micky postulated that Goofy disliked his big, floppy ear, but later, 
S        V            
he discovered Goofy loved them.
                   S        V                               adverb             S            V
Example:  Pluto stepped in a puddle, and slowly, murky water permeated his shoes.

** You can also reverse this pattern, like this:  Adverb, IC, conjunction IC.
                Adverb,          S           V                                                S
Example:  Suddenly, a calamity struck the mid-western town, but everyone
     V
survived the tornado unharmed.
                 Adverb,           S           V                                                        S
Example:  Yesterday, a tornado struck the mid-western town, and the calamity
    V
 took many lives.

SENTENCE PATTERN 10: Adj + adj, IC, conjunction adverb, IC.

SP 10 = SP 2, conjunction SP 3
SP 10 = Adj + adj, IC, conjunction adverb, IC.
SP 10 = Adj + adj, subject + verb, conjunction adverb, subject + verb.
        adj            adj ,           S           V                                , conj    adv  ,      S
Ex:  Gaunt and weak, the model staggered down the runway, and suddenly, she
      V
collapsed.

Ex:  Careful and concerned, Beatrice borrowed her friend's boat, but unfortunately, a renegade rowboat rammed into it during the raging storm.

EX:  Lonely and depressed, the nomad traveled down a hill on his bike, and hopefully, he was trying to find a new home.

SENTENCE PATTERN 11: IC + DC (adj clause)

SP 11 = IC + DAC (Dependent Adjective Clause)
DAC = a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun as the subject;
        this clause functions as an adjectives, i.e. it describes a noun.

Relative Pronoun = a pronoun that relates to a noun in the IC (any noun):
                                 that, which, who, whose, whom

Comma Rules:
1.  If the DAC is extra information, use commas
2.  If the DAC is essential information, use NO commas
3.  If the relative pronoun used is "that," use NO commas.
4.  If the relative pronoun used is "which," use commas.
5.  For who, whose, or whom give it the extra or essential test.

Ex:  Joe ate a deplorable pizza that was moldy.
Ex:   Joe ate a deplorable pizza, which was moldy.
Ex:  Bob admires Joe, who is an exemplary student.
Ex:  Bob, who is an exemplary student, admires his coach.
Ex:  Jane read a book that was 500 pages long in just three days!
Ex:  Jane read a book, which was 500 pages long, in just three days!

* When you write these sentences for homework, underline the subjects and verbs in both the IC and the DC.  Remember, the relative pronoun is the subject of the DC (DAC).  

SP 12:  Using whom (vs. who or whose) in Interrogative Sentences
Write questions using whom to rename a noun which functions as an object in the answer.)  Hint:  To determine the parts of speech, write or think about the answer to the question.  What is the subject?  Verb?  Direct object? (or object of a prepostion)?  These words will play the same role in the question format.

Whom is always used as a direct object or the object of a preposition when renaming a person or group of people. (Otherwise, use what.)
    1. Direct object: Use whom to rename the direct object in a question.
        Whom
did you call?   
         (Answer: I called JoeJoe is a direct object.)
        Whom did you pay for the dance tickets?
        (Answer:  I paid Dave for the dance tickets.  Dave is a direct object.)
    
    2. Object of preposition: Use whom to rename the object of a prepostion.
            To whom did you speak?
             (Answer: I spoke to JoeJoe is the object of a preposition.)
            You gave my number to whom
            (Answer: I gave your number to Joe.)

Example: 
Q: 
Whom are Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen-year-old athletes, savvy about?    
Q:  Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen-year-old athletes, are very savvy
about whom?
A:  Joe and his friends, a group of fourteen year-old athletes, are very savvy about soccer players.

* Who is always used as a subject or a predicate pronoun (a pronoun that follows the verb).  We used who (and that or which) is SP 11.
    Subject of IC: Who called the power company?
    Subject of DC: The person who hit my car should have to pay to fix the damages.
    Predicate Pronoun: The electrician is who?

Go to this Website to find out more about the use of who, whose, and whom:
    http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/pronouns.htm   
        Find and read Basic Principle # 5.  For more help, take one or more of the quizzes at the bottom of this Website and check your answers.  Use the HINTS provided to learn the rules.

SP 13:  Using Who’s and Whose in Interrogative Sentences

Write 2-3 interrogative sentences (questions) using whose correctly and 2-3 using who’s correctly.  Use one vocabulary word from Week 13 in each sentence. 

whose = a possessive pronoun showing ownership  (Whose book is this?  This book is mine.)
who’s = who is (Who’s going to the dance?  Everyone is going to the dance.)     Who = the subject;  is = the verb

(The only problem most writers have with whose is confusing it with who's, which looks like a possessive but is really the contraction for who is.  In the same way that we should not confuse his with he's (he is) or hers with she's (she is) or its with it's (it is), we should not confuse whose with who's.)  
For example:
    Who's that walking down the street?
    Whose coat is this? (This is whose coat?)
    I don't care whose paper this is.  It's brilliant!

Whose can be used to refer to inanimate objects as well as to people (although there is a kind of folk belief that it should refer only to humans and other mammals): "I remember reading a book — whose title I can't recall right now — about a boy and a basenji."

SENTENCE PATTERN 14: Writing Dialogue

Here are three ways to use speaker tags and quotation marks with dialogue:
1) The speaker tags come before the dialogue:
   EX:  Mary moaned, "That eerie haunted house gave me nightmare."
          ____ _____, "__________________________________."
2) The speaker tags come after the dialogue:
     EX: "That eerie haunted house gave me nightmares, " moaned Mary.
           "__________________________________,"  ______ ____.
3) The speaker tags come in the middle of the dialogue, in the middle of a sentence:
     EX:  "That eerie haunted house," moaned Mary, "gave me nightmares."
            "___________________," ______ ____, "______________."

Homework:  Write 6 sentences using Week 14 Vocabulary words and one other vocabulary word from a past present.  Use the three ways described above twice each.  Underline the subject and verbs.  Check for correct placement of quotation marks, commas, periods and capital letters.  Make sure each sentence is 12 words or more, including the speaker tags.   

Sentence Pattern 15: Writing Similes & Metaphors

Write a sentence for each vocabulary word which uses a simile or metaphor.  Each sentence must have 12+ words.  Edit all spelling, punctuation, capitalization.  Use vocabulary words meaningfully.  Highlight or box vocab. word.

Examples:
    Simile:  My teacher gives as much advice as a kibitzer because she tells us every day to work hard and prioritize academics.
    Metaphor:  My teacher is a kibitzer  (NOT!) who tells us every day to work hard and prioritize academics.
    Simile:  The clouds were like white snow balls, dancing across the sky..
    Metaphor:  The clouds were white snow balls, dancing across the sky.

SP 16: Using Colons in Sentences to List

Use a colon (:) in a sentence when listing objects, people, places, activities, etc.

NEVER use a colon AFTER a VERB or PREPOSITION!

Never place a colon between the subject and the verb.

Example: We need the following items for school: pens, paper, pencils, and scissors.
    Wrong:  For school we need: pens, paper, pencils, and scissors.
        Why?  When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

Example: Robin Williams impersonates these people: Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Bill Gates.
    Wrong: Robin Williams impersonates: Bill Clinton, George Bush, and Bill Gates.
        Why? When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

Example:  Many people work in government positions: members of the judicial branch, heads of the president's cabinets, and representatives in Congress.  (Use parallel structure. See SP-18)

Example: Proper etiquette includes the following: listen to others, raise your hand to speak, and wait to be called on.
    Wrong: Proper etiquette includes: listening to others, raising your hand to speak, and waiting to be called on.
        Why? When the list immediately follows a verb, no colon is needed.

SP16/18 Using Colons to List in Parallel Structure:

Here are some materials that are inflexible: a piece (of wood), a slab (of granite), and a block (of cement).

Many activities occur in a ghetto: basketball, bootlegging, and gambling.

These chores are very mundane: doing laundry, emptying the trash, vacuuming the carpet, and washing the dishes.

 

SP 17: Adverb Clauses (DC)

* An adverb clause is a dependent clause (DC) that tells how, when, where, or why the action (verb) takes place. 
* All clauses have a
subject and a verb.
* An adverb clause begins with an adverb such as before, after, because, so, when, while.
*
Comma Rules:
    1.  If the DC (adverb clause) precedes the IC, use a comma.   (DC, IC.)
    2.  If the IC precedes the DC (adverb clause), use NO comma.  (IC + DC.)
Examples:
    1.  Because
he was famished,
he was famished, Bob ate an entire extra-large pizza. (DC, IC.)
    2. The
teacher rescinded her offer to give us ten points after we got our parent's signature on the test.  we got our parent's signature on the test.  (IC + DC.)

Sentence Pattern 18: Using Parallel Structure
Copy and paste this lesson into your Lang. Arts spiral (grammar section) and do the "Homework" exercises below.

Parallel Structure 
For additional help using parallel structure, see Capital Community College Guide to Grammar and Writing http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/parallelism.htm

                Coordinate ideas must use the same tense or structure.  (These examples are taken from PUSD's Writing Manuel.)

Wrong: We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and once almost ran the truck off the road.  
Correct: We learned how to change a tire, shift sixteen gears, and keep the truck from running off the road. 
  (All the objects of the verb learned are parallel.)
   
Wrong: I have mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and went to the store all in one day.
Correct:  I mowed the lawn, washed the dog, rescued our hamster, and went to the store all in one day. 
  (All the verbs are parallel)  
Wrong: Water skiing no longer interests me as much as to go scuba diving.  
Correct: Water skiing no longer interests me as much as scuba diving.  

When you include two or more similar thoughts in the same sentence, they should be constructed in a similar way.  Similar construction is called "parallel structure."  There are many situations when parallel structure is used.  Here's a few:
1.  If one item in a series is listed as a prepositional phrase, the others should be in a prepositional phrase also.
    Example:  After a game of soccer, Bob quaffs a gallon
of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and a pint of prune juice.  
   
NOT: ...Bob quaffs a gallon of Gatorade, a quart of Quencher, and some prune juice.
2.  If one clause of a sentence is in ACTIVE voice, the other clause should also be in ACTIVE voice (not PASSIVE).  
    Example:  Bob
participated in three events and won awards in all three.
    NOT:  Bob
participated in three events and was awarded a prize in all three.
3.  If listing a series of actions (verbs) in a sentence, use the same verb tense.
    Example:  Whenever he
feels melancholy, Bob runs on the beach, plays tennis, sees an upbeat movie, or calls a friend.   (All verbs are in present tense.)
    NOT:  ..., Bob
runs on the beach, plays tennis, saw an upbeat movie, or calls a friend.  (Saw is in past tense.)
4.  There are lots of other situations in writing that require parallel structure.  It's hard to classify all of them.  Here's a few other examples of parallel structure.
    Right:  Fearing failure, Bob began
trembling, sweating, and vomiting.
    Wrong:  ..., Bob began
trembling, sweating, and he vomited.
    Right: Because Bob became an investigative reporter, he asked
where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and why it occurred. 
    Wrong: ...., he asked
where the accident occurred, when it occurred, and the reason it occurred.

SP 18 Homework:  Underline the correct ending for each sentence below.
1.  The movie Catch Me If You Can featured a character who was daring, racy, and...
(a) ...intelligent.    (b) ...used his intelligence.
2.  Leonardo DiCaprio portrayed a charlatan who impersonated others, accepted jobs he was not qualified to do, and...   (a) ...put others in perilous situations.  (b)...others were put in perilous situations.
3.  Before the 10-mile run began, Fritz ate a protein bar and...  (a)...quaffed a jug of Gatorade.     (b)...will quaff a jug of Gatorade.
4.  "Don't mock me and ... (a) ...don't mock others," warned the principal.   (b)...it's not nice to mock others," warned the principal.
5.  Finding herself in a perilous predicament, Porsha decided she should retrace her steps, find a map,and..
   (a)...take a safer route.   (b)...a safer route was found.

SP-19:  Using Possessive Nouns (from PUSD’s Writing With Style Manual)
Write one sentence for each of the six rules shown below.  Each sentence must use one of this week's vocabulary words.

1. Add an apostrophe and an s to form the possessive of singular nouns, even if the noun ends in s:  

Bob Dylan’s voice       

the kiss’s meaning

Dickens’s novels  

2. Add only an apostrophe to form the possessive of plural nouns ending in s.  If the plural does not end in s, add ‘s to form the possessive:  

the Joneses’ father

the Padres’ last game

children’s library

3. For the possessive form of a compound noun or an indefinite pronoun, place an apostrophe and an s after the last word:  

mother-in-law’s apartment

Secretary of State’s telephone  

everybody’s                

someone else’s 

anyone’s  

4. Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs and the relative pronoun whose) do not require an apostrophe.  
Remember that the word immediately before the apostrophe is the owner:  

parent’s car = one parent owns

boss’ office = one boss owns  

parents’ car = two parents own            

bosses’ office = many bosses own  

5. When ownership is shared, the apostrophe is also shared; use the possessive form only on the last item in a series to indicate shared ownership:  
  • Caitlin, Chris, and Joshua’s house = the house is shared by all three  
6. When ownership is individual, each noun in a series gets its own individual apostrophe and s:  
  • Caitlin’s, Chris’s, and Joshua’s jackets = each has his or her own jacket  
           

SP-20 = SP-18 Using Parallel Structure + SP-19 Using Possessive Nouns

Write five sentences that use possessive nouns (SP-19) AND parallel structure (SP-18).  Review each of these sentence patterns above and study the examples below.

1.  John Steinbeck's novel,The Pearl, contains many examples of imagery and illustrates multiple themes.

2.  My three friends' favorite sports are snowboarding at Big Bear, snorkeling in La Jolla, and playing basketball at the YMCA.

3.  The Secretary of Defense's responsibilities are to  serve as a liaison between the military and the president and advise the president on military preparedness.

 

Sentence Pattern Review